In the fourth part of the series “science vs mythology,” — the whole truth about the benefits of wine, Superfoods and Apple cider vinegar. And the whole truth about the dangers of tomatoes.
We continue to translate the best articles of the rubric Wellness Lies with popular science website Tonic.Vice.com. Previous releases:
- Myths about health and diet: detox does not exist, and gluten is not so bad
- 5 myths about nutrition: probiotics, Kombucha, and other
- 5 myths about beauty and health: microwave ovens are not harmful, but not infrared sauna lose weight
1. Alkaline water is useless
Alkaline water – the basis of the alkaline diet. Questionable from a medical point of view of the concept that the pH of the body depends on what we eat.
Alkaline water sold in bottles is, for example, is popular in USA Essentia. By the way, the author of alkaline diet by Robert O. young was arrested in 2017 and sentenced to five months in prison for the practice of medicine without a license. But who and when it stopped?
The website of actress Gwyneth Paltrow continues to popularitywith this idea, and athletes swear that this helps them to improve performance. Brands that sell alkaline water, still promise to heal with her help, depression and cancer. Despite the fact that the court recently sentenced Robert O. young to pay $ 105 million such. Yang, who, as we remember, there is no medical or scientific education, encouraged him to abandon the traditional treatment.
Generally, the sales strategy alkaline water is quite interesting. For example, Aqualiv brand sells not the actual alkaline water is a device that turns any H2O in it. Buying it, you can become a brand Ambassador. The point is, in your home or office come the people, taste the water and if they buy the same device, you get 15% of its value. We are, of course, not suggesting anything… wait, who said “Kirby vacuum cleaner”?:)
Doctors who have talked about the benefits of alkaline water, to find not just difficult – almost impossible. The reason? The lack of evidence.
Let’s be clear: the alkaline diet, there are useful principles – for example, the Council is spinach, but the level of pH in the blood it has no effect. “Change only the disease, but not food,” — said mark Hellerstein, Professor of nutrition and toxicology, University of California, Berkeley.
There are no serious clinical studies that would confirm the link between alkaline water and improving athletic performance, and health.
However, this does not mean that alkaline water is completely useless. It can affect the pH level in the urine. Therefore, in kidney diseases, when they secrete an excess of acid, the meaning of it to drink there. If interstitial cystitis and chronic inflammation of the bladder it can help alleviate unpleasant symptoms.
The good news is that experts see no harm in the consumption of alkaline water. They just think its useless (without evidence, for a healthy person) and refer to the scarcity of studies on its benefits.
If you still want to drink alkaline water, but to buy the coolest devices at $ 900 seems too expensive, to reduce acidity of water with a simple baking soda. Will be cheaper and the effect is the same.
- Read more about alkaline water.
2. Apple cider vinegar helps with acne and heartburn
One of the favorite home remedies “from all” — and sore throat, and high blood pressure. Diabetics drink it in the hope to reduce the blood sugar. And someone said that using vinegar to adjust the level of “bad” cholesterol and improve skin condition. And, of course, Apple cider vinegar is used for digestive issues, especially heartburn.
All of this is true? In short, no. “There is no scientific justification for the use of vinegar, but there is plenty of evidence of its harms, says Rudolph Bedford, gastroenterologist Medical center Providence Saint John’s in Santa Monica (CA). – According to studies, a weekly dosage of Apple cider vinegar increases the risk of erosion of tooth enamel”.
Not shown: lowering cholesterol, reducing the symptoms of allergies, acne
and heartburn. Also Apple cider vinegar does not get rid of the hiccups and leg cramps.
The only scientifically substantiated through placebo-controlled randomized study the effect of reducing weight. The study, which was conducted in Japan for 12 weeks, proved that two tablespoons of vinegar (and any!) a day reduce the amount of visceral fat in the body and help to lose weight. And the trays were a drink, the more weight the subjects lost. And among the vinegars of Apple, as we know, not the nasty taste.
- Read more about Apple cider vinegar.
3. Wine is not a health elixir
Is there any other alcoholic drink, which is so conflicting opinions? Probably not. They say that wine is useful, then that is absolutely the opposite. Where is the truth?
In a recent study at the University of Virginia found that resveratrol – a component which is more common in red wine than in white and pink — has the potential to reduce the degradation of muscle fibers and cognitive impairment associated with age. How difficult is it, really? Another thing is to write “Component of the wine slows down aging of the brain.”
But that’s the whole trick. We are very keen to get to the bottom, while the devil is in the details. In fact all true. But first, the study was conducted on mice and not on humans. Second, in tests on humans, linking resveratrol with improved heart health and reduce the risk of dementia, the participants drank no wine, and food additive.
However, there is evidence (but not proof) that moderate alcohol consumption is really useful: 1 serving per day (which is 350 ml fortress 5%, 150 ml of wine alcohol 12% or 30 ml of alcohol 40%) reduces the risk of diabetes, blood clots and heart attack. And the most wonderful – increases life expectancy!
But here again the details. Studies have shown a link between moderate alcohol consumption and all of these health bonuses, but none of them argues that one necessarily leads to another.
A Danish study found that people who buy wine are also more likely to put in their grocery carts with fruits and vegetables. And beer lovers – semi-finished products and sweets.
But all of these studies is not enough… well, research. Here is what Aaron white, senior scientific Advisor national American Institute of alcoholism and alcohol abuse: “there is Not enough clinical tests in which alcohol would be investigated as a medicine. That is, those where the daily use would be strictly controlled. Not all even know how much is “one serving”. So when it comes to this point, many people make mistakes”.
The subtlety is in the fact that you honestly can think that drinking two glasses of red a day, but if you drink strong wines like Cabernet and Zinfandel and poured myself a little more strict than 150 ml, it may be that your daily intake – three to four portions. And this is another matter.
- Read more about red wine and alcohol in General.
4. Superfoods does not exist
These magic foods protect against cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and help you lose weight. Really? Sorry fans of raspberry, almond, avocado, quinoa and salmon — no. The actual useful properties of the products, coupled with effective marketing, allow you to sell vegetables and magazines. Often the manufacturers themselves pay for studies proving that their products are the best.
According to statistics, in 2015 in the US 36% increase in consumption only with the prefix “super”. Superfoods, superfruits and supercrop began to sell like hotcakes. And people are willing and continue to pay for them, say the results of a survey of 30 thousand people.
How much good bring a superfood, really? Consider as an example here is the study. Briefly, it States that consumption of nuts reduces mortality by 20%. Cool, right? But if a little more detail? The study found that the mortality rate among those who eat nuts seven times a week, 20% less likely in the next 30 years than in those who did not eat nuts. As they say, feel the difference.
Most studies show the relationship between different foods and health, but not saying it’s causal. In other words, nowhere does it say that if you eat X, then your health will happen to Y.
Health is more important not to eat a specific fruit or nut, and generally eat healthy. The who recommends a diet high in plant foods and whole grains, moderate protein and minimal everything else.
- Read more about Superfoods.
5. Tomatoes, eggplants and peppers do not cause inflammation
Remember the poison overdosed on heroine in the immortal Shakespeare’s tragedy “Romeo and Juliet”? Juice of purple flower — most likely from the deadly belladonna.
Belladonna or handsome plant of the family Solanaceae. This family is extremely numerous, it counts 2,000 members. In it tomatoes, eggplant, potatoes, Goji berries, bell and hot peppers.
Some athletes aiming to refrain from all these products, because they are sure that they cause inflammation of the joints (arthritis). From such a conclusion? The fact that the toxic Solanaceae such as belladonna – contain high doses of harmful substances – alkaloids. But in the edible members of this family very little. Besides, their number is still reduced during cooking.
In addition, nightshades contain high doses of lecithin. Singer Kelly Clarkson last year said that beleltika diet saved her from problems with the thyroid gland. Some believe that the lecithin – it is “anti-matter”, which causes us diseases. According to their theory, lecithin vegetables need to protect these fruits from eating and therefore causes inflammation. But, first, its level also falls during cooking, and secondly, the concentration in raw vegetables so small that you have to eat a lot of tomatoes and peppers to achieve a negative effect.
However, in 2017, a study was conducted on 1206 people with psoriasis. 52% reported that the symptoms diminished when they refused to tomatoes and eggplant. But why it happened, and indeed, is there between these two facts clear link, science can not yet say. Proof perhaps sooner or later appear. Maybe it was just the placebo effect.
It is precisely known that to abandon Solanaceae “just in case” there is no reason. The tomatoes are full of antioxidant lycopene. In the Bulgarian pepper of vitamin C. aubergines manganese and vitamin b In potatoes more magnesium than the banana.
If you are healthy and you have no food allergies, eat tomatoes and potatoes in peace. You’ll be fine.
- Read more about Solanaceae.
Were you surprised by anything in this review? Caused by the desire to bet?